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Transforming growth factors beta (TGF-β) are cytokines secreted by several different cells with effects, via interacting with specific receptors, on cellular proliferation, differentiation, hormone secretion, embryonal development, gene expression, apoptosis, etc.[1] They produce potent immunosuppressant effects, promote the formation and development of connective tissues, inhibit the proliferation and migration of epithelial, endothelial and haematopoietic cells and are involved (as an inhibitor or promoter, depending on the cancer and circumstances) in the development process of several cancers and is pro-fibrotic.[2][3][4]

Reference listEdit

  1. Kilbourne, J; Case, JT; Cho, DS; Hui, C; Jarnot, M; Koroma, B; Pash, J; Powell, T; Schulman, JL; Sorden, N (2015). "Transforming Growth Factor beta". Medical Subject Headings. Bethesda, USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 8 January 2015. 
  2. Kumar, V; Abbas, AK; Aster, AC (July 2014). "Chapter 3. Inflammation and Repair". Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease 9e. Philadelphia, USA: Saunders. pp. 105–106. ISBN 978-0-8089-2450-0. 
  3. Kumar, V; Abbas, AK; Aster, AC (July 2014). "Chapter 6. Diseases of the Immune System". Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease 9e. Philadelphia, USA: Saunders. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-8089-2450-0. 
  4. Kumar, V; Abbas, AK; Aster, AC (July 2014). "Chapter 7. Neoplasia". Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease 9e. Philadelphia, USA: Saunders. pp. 298, 313. ISBN 978-0-8089-2450-0. 

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