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Recombinant DNA technology involves the modification of the DNA of an organism, most commonly the Escherichia coli, in an effort to get said organism to produce certain target proteins. Usually these proteins are those naturally produced by other organisms, most commonly humans or other animals (e.g., insulin or cytokines). The most common method of doing this is by taking the DNA of the organism that naturally produces these proteins and cutting out this genetic material that is used to produce said protein and inserting it into the DNA of the target organism (e.g., E. coli). 

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