Lesions typical of KS
Kaposi sarcoma is a sarcoma that is highly associated with the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and is substantially more frequent in certain ethnic groups and the immunocompromised. It usually causes lesions in the skin or mucus membranes, especially the mouth or rectum. It was once a very rare cancer that was usually seen in its classic (or sporadic) form, which occurs predominantly in older (50-70 years of age, usually) males (10-15:1 male preponderance) from the Mediterranean region or Eastern Europe.
Treatment usually consists of relieving the underlying immunodeficiency/immunosuppressant which usually by itself causes regression of the tumour often to the point of remission, if specific therapy is required the following may be used:
- Topical treatments, such as with retinoids (e.g., alitretinoin), radiation, intralesional treatments with chemotherapy, freezing of the lesions, surgery, etc. They are especially effective at palliating problematic localized lesions.
- Systemic chemotherapy, usually with bleomycin, doxorubicin, etoposide, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, vinblastine and/or vincristine are the best-studied systemic treatments for the disease and many of these drugs are approved for the treatment of KS in the U.S.
- Targeted therapies are under investigation for KS, although none has received regulatory approval in any country so far. KS is a highly vascular tumour, that is, it requires a lot of support by nearby blood vessels in order for it to grow and survive, hence several anti-angiogenic therapies have been tried with some success, including: interferon alfa, lenalidomide and thalidomide. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib has also been trialled with some success, likely as c-KIT is also known to play a key role in KS' pathophysiology. Two other immune response modifiers have also been trialled with some success: imiquimod and interleukin-12.
- NCBI Bookshelf provides free book resources on this topic.
- PubMed provides review articles from the past five years (limit to free review articles or to systematic reviews)
- The TRIP database provides clinical publications about evidence-based medicine.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Rose, LJ; Fishman, AD; Sparano, JA (22 April 2014). Talavera, F; McKenna, R; Harris, JE, ed. "Kaposi sarcoma". Medscape Reference. New York, USA: WebMD. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- ↑ Kumar, V; Abbas, AK; Aster, AC (July 2014). "Chapter 11. Blood Vessels". Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease 9e. Philadelphia, USA: Saunders. pp. 518–519. ISBN 978-0-8089-2450-0.
- ↑ Rose, LJ; Fishman, AD; Sparano, JA (22 April 2014). Talavera, F; McKenna, R; Harris, JE, ed. "Kaposi sarcoma Treatment & Management Treatment & Management". Medscape Reference. New York, USA: WebMD. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- ↑ Uldrick, TS; Whitby, D (28 June 2011). "Update on KSHV epidemiology, Kaposi Sarcoma pathogenesis, and treatment of Kaposi Sarcoma.". Cancer Letters 305 (2): 150–62. PMC 3085592. PMID 21377267. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2011.02.006.
- ↑ Régnier-Rosencher, E; Guillot, B; Dupin, N (February 2013). "Treatments for classic Kaposi sarcoma: a systematic review of the literature.". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 68 (2): 313–31. PMID 22695100. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2012.04.018.