2D structure of thalidomide
- Inhibition of COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α production
- Induction of IFN-γ and IL-2 production
- Co-stimulation of T-cells and NK-cells
- Stimulation of dendritic cell function
- Inhibition of Treg activity
along with several non-immunologic effects such as:
- Inhibition of VEGF, IGF-1 and TGF-β leading to reduced angiogenesis, amongst other effects.
- Inhibition of tumour cell proliferation, via G1 growth arrest
- Induction of tumour cell apoptosis
- Teratogenesis (which appears to be mediated by its binding to the protein cereblon)
IMiDs can be broken down into two major classes or "generations" based on their tolerability and therapeutic effects.
Sometimes an additional generation, namely third-generation of IMiDs are classed as IMiDs. I do not consider them IMiDs as while they are structurally related to thalidomide (usually distantly) they lack many of the pharmacologic properties characteristic of thalidomide like cereblon binding; the only such example that has yet received regulatory approval is apremilast.
- NCBI Bookshelf provides free book resources on this topic.
- PubMed provides review articles from the past five years (limit to free review articles or to systematic reviews)
- The TRIP database provides clinical publications about evidence-based medicine.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Vallet, S; Witzens-Harig, M; Jaeger, D; Podar, K (March 2012). "Update on immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) in hematologic and solid malignancies.". Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 13 (4): 473–94. PMID 22324734. doi:10.1517/14656566.2012.656091.
- ↑ Castelli, R; Cannavò, A; Conforti, F; Grava, G; Cortelezzi, A (October 2012). "Immunomodulatory drugs in multiple myeloma: from molecular mechanisms of action to clinical practice.". Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 34 (5): 740–53. PMID 22401643. doi:10.3109/08923973.2012.658921.
- ↑ Pan, B; Lentzsch, S (October 2012). "The application and biology of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) in cancer.". Pharmacology & Therapeutics 136 (1): 56–68. PMID 22796518. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2012.07.004.
- ↑ Chang, XB; Stewart, AK (2011). "What is the functional role of the thalidomide binding protein cereblon?". International Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2 (3): 287–94. PMC 3193296. PMID 22003441.