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Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), also known as bone marrow transplantation (BMT), involves the intravenous (IV) infusion of autologous (i.e., the person's own haematopoietic stem cells [HSCs]) or allogeneic (i.e., using a donor's HSC) stem cells to re-establish haematopoiesis in the bone marrow after myeloablative therapy (which involves high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation treatments). Autologous HSCTs are performed, most commonly, to treat lymphomas that are resistant to standard doses of chemotherapy, but sensitive to far higher doses of chemotherapy as in order to treat these cases the doses of chemotherapy required are enough to ablate the marrow anyway, hence why it is often advantagous to perform a HSCT then. They may also be performed for select autoimmune diseases or amyloidosis. Allogenic HSCTs are usually performed to treat leukaemia, lymphoma, inherited blood disorders and a few other conditions. HSCTs In 2010 over 20,000 HSCTs were performed, worldwide.[1]

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  1. Peñas, PF; Zaman, S (February 2010). "Many faces of graft-versus-host disease.". The Australasian Journal of Dermatology 51 (1): 1–10; quiz 11. PMID 20148830. doi:10.1111/j.1440-0960.2009.00577.x. 

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