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Dopamine
Dopamine
Synonyms 3-hydroxytyramine, ASL-279, DA
Brand names Intropin
IUPAC name

IUPAC name
4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
ChemSpider

661

DrugBank

DB00988

PubChem

681

PDB fields

N/A

Formula

C8H11NO2

InChI
InChI
1S/C8H11NO2/c9-4-3-6-1-2-7(10)8(11)5-6/h1-2,5,10-11H,3-4,9H2
InChIKey
InChIKey
VYFYYTLLBUKUHU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
SMILES
SMILES
C1=CC(=C(C=C1CCN)O)O
(Jmol 3D structure)
Mol. mass

153.1784 g/mol

Dopamine is a catecholamine neurotransmitter that our bodies synthesize from L-tyrosine (an amino acid), after first turning it into levodopa. All addictive drugs increase dopamine levels in the mesolimbic pathway (MLP) indirectly (or directly for some of them), that is, they do not bind to any receptor or other protein that directly regulates dopamine release in the MLP, but rather work via a sophisticated network of receptors and brain cells, that in turn, leads to said increase in dopamine in the MLP.[1]

Roles for other neurotransmitters in drug abuse also exists, including: serotonin,[2] noradrenaline,[3] GABA[4][5] and glutamate.[6][7] Although stimulants violate this general rule and do in fact bind to receptors and other proteins that directly regulate dopamine release in the MLP. 


External linksEdit

Reference listEdit

  1. Brunton, LL; Chabner, BA; Knollmann, BC, ed. (2010). "Chapter 24. Drug Addiction". Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12e. New York City: AccessMedicine. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  2. Müller, CP; Homberg, JR (April 2014). "The role of serotonin in drug use and addiction.". Behavioural Brain Research. PMID 24769172. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.04.007. 
  3. Fitzgerald, PJ (2013). "Elevated Norepinephrine may be a Unifying Etiological Factor in the Abuse of a Broad Range of Substances: Alcohol, Nicotine, Marijuana, Heroin, Cocaine, and Caffeine.". Substance Abuse 7: 171–183. PMC 3798293. PMID 24151426. doi:10.4137/SART.S13019. 
  4. Kalivas, PW (August 2009). "The glutamate homeostasis hypothesis of addiction.". Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 10 (8): 561–72. PMID 19571793. doi:10.1038/nrn2515. 
  5. Filip, M; Frankowska, M (November-December 2008). "GABA(B) receptors in drug addiction." (PDF). Pharmacological Reports 60 (6): 755–70. PMID 19211967.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  6. Kalivas, PW; Lalumiere, RT; Knackstedt, L; Shen, H (2009). "Glutamate transmission in addiction.". Neuropharmacology. 56 Suppl 1: 169–73. PMC 3280337. PMID 18675832. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.07.011. 
  7. Kalivas, PW (August 2009). "The glutamate homeostasis hypothesis of addiction.". Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 10 (8): 561–72. PMID 19571793. doi:10.1038/nrn2515. 

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