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Cytokines are proteins that are produced by the immune system and are involved in the immune response. They can induce leukocyte proliferation, modify immune response to invaders or cancers, directly induce apoptosis in malignant, infected or foreign cells. Many have their own specific receptors, which can signal via tyrosine kinases (TKs) or G-proteins (such receptors are called G-protein coupled receptors [GPCRs]).

ChemokinesEdit

Chemokines are cytokines that can be produced in the absence of inflammation or in inflammatory states by the tissues of the body, their purpose is to attract leukocytes (which is called the chemotaxis of said leukocytes) and to activate them.[1] They signal via GPCRs.[2] Some promote haematopoiesis (blood cell formation) and others allow the entry of HIV into cells.[3][4] Maraviroc which antagonizes CCR5 is used to treat HIV,[5] plerixafor which antagonizes CXCR4 promotes haematopoiesis.[6]

InterferonsEdit

Interferons (IFNs) are produced by virally-infected cells and certain lymphocytes, they are designed to protect uninfected cells from viral infection and they also promote an immune response to the virus.[7] They often signal via Janus Kinase (JAK) TKs.[8][9] IFN-alfa and beta bind to the same receptor, IFNAR, which signals via JAK1 and TYK2[8] and IFN-gamma signals via JAK3.[9]

IFN MeSH Cell of origin Biologic effects Medical uses
α [1] Leukocytes. Activates NK-cells and B-cells. Down-regulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Recombinant IFN-alfa is used to treat metastatic renal cell carcinoma, adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma, AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma, Hairy cell leukaemia, follicular lymphoma, malignant melanoma, hepatitis B/C, herpes simplex, progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, etc.[10]
β [2] Fibroblasts. Possesses antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects. Recombinant IFN-β used to treat autoimmune disorders line Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.[11]
γ [3] Antigen-stimulated T-cells. Possesses primarily immunomodulatory effects. Recombinant IFN-γ used to treat bacterial infections, leishmaniasis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and skin disorders.[12]

InterleukinsEdit

Main page: Interleukin

Interleukins (ILs) are cytokines that serve as growth factors for blood cells, are involved in haematopoietic differentiation and promote DNA synthesis and secretion of other inflammatory/immune mediators.[13]

NotesEdit


Reference listEdit

  1. "Chemokines". Medical Subject Headings. Bethesda, USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2011. 
  2. Allen, SJ; Crown, SE; Handel, TM (2007). "Chemokine: receptor structure, interactions, and antagonism.". Annual Review of Immunology 25: 787–820. PMID 17291188. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.24.021605.090529. 
  3. "Receptors, CXCR4". Medical Subject Headings. Bethesda, USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2014. 
  4. "Receptors, CCR5". Medical Subject Headings. Bethesda, USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2014. 
  5. Brayfield, A, ed. (23 September 2011). "Maraviroc". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 28 October 2014. 
  6. Brayfield, A, ed. (10 April 2014). "Plerixafor". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 28 October 2014. 
  7. Marieb, EN; Hoehn, K (2013). Human Anatomy & Physiology (9th ed. ed.). Boston, USA: Pearson. ISBN 978-0-321-74326-8. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Uzé, G; Schreiber, G; Piehler, J; Pellegrini, S (2007). "The receptor of the type I interferon family.". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 316: 71–95. PMID 17969444. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-71329-6_5. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 van Boxel-Dezaire, AH; Stark, GR (2007). "Cell type-specific signaling in response to interferon-gamma.". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 316: 119–54. PMID 17969446. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-71329-6_7. 
  10. Brayfield, A, ed. (2014). "Interferon Alfa". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 26 October 2014. 
  11. Brayfield, A, ed. (2014). "Interferon Beta". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 26 October 2014. 
  12. Brayfield, A, ed. (2014). "Interferon Gamma". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 26 October 2014. 
  13. "Interleukins". Medical Subject Headings. Bethesda, USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2014. 

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