Patterns of disease involvement of the gastrointestinal tract from Crohn's.
Crohn disease (CD) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can affect any part of the digestive tract, although it most commonly affects the large intestine in a non-continuous way, with patchy regions of diseased bowel, unlike ulcerative colitis (UC; the other form of IBD) that primarily affects the rectum and lower regions of the colon. Unlike UC CD is more frequent in smokers and is associated with the formation of granulomas in about 30% of cases.
It is usually treated with drugs of the following categories:
- 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) derivatives such as mesalazine and sulfasalazine
- Corticosteroids (e.g., hydrocortisone, prednisolone, prednisone)
- Immunosuppressants (e.g., mercaptopurine, methotrexate and tacrolimus)
- Monoclonal antibody (e.g., anti-TNF-α agents and α-4 integrin inhibitors)
- Antibiotics (e.g., ciprofloxacin, metronidazole)
- Symptomatic treatment with antidiarrhoeals (e.g., loperamide) and bile acid sequestrants
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