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Clusters of differentiation (CDs) are receptors (that can also serve as cell antigens) expressed on the surface of various immune cells.

Clusters of differentiation[note 1]
CD MeSH ID Expressing cells Role
CD1 D018949 T-cells, B-cells and Langerhans cells Presents antigens to the TCR.
CD2 D018801 T-cells, NK-cells and thymocytes. Co-receptor to the T-cell receptor. Structurally related to immunoglobulin.
CD3 D017252 Mature T-cells Has five subunits; all are involved in the signalling of the T-cell receptor.
CD4 D015704 Helper T-cells Involved in MHC II immune responses; interleukin-15 and HIV receptors.
CD5 D018956 Mature T-cells, thymocytes and some B-cells Targeted antibodies for CD5 can enhance T cell activation via the T cell receptor.
CD6 None Mature T-cells and medullary thymocytes predominantly. Important for the continuation of T cell activation.[1] Defects in the CD6 gene have been associated with multiple sclerosis.[2][3] Serves as a receptor for activated leukocyte-adhesion molecules. 
CD7 D019011 Thymocytes, haematopoietic stem cells and certain T-cells. Involved in T-cell signalling; otherwise unknown.
CD8 D016827 Thymocytes; cytotoxic T-cells; also on some NK-cells. Co-receptor to the T-cell receptor. Structurally related to immunoglobulins.
CD9 D060245 Neurons, leukocytes, gonadal tissue.  A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility and tumour metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue and the fusion of sperm with egg.
CD10 D015260 Pre-B cells and germinal-centre B cells Neprilysin; an enzyme that breaks down opioid peptides, insulin, etc.
CD11 D018845 Granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. Expressed by HCL. A group of three different alpha chains that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain; they serve as leukocyte adhesion molecules.
CD14 D018950 Monocytes, macrophages and some granulocytes.[4] Serves as a receptor for the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-LPS-binding protein complex.[4]
CD15 D016256 Granulocytes, Reed-Sternberg cells and variants. Trisaccharide that is expressed on eosinophils, neutrophils and monocytes.[5]
CD16 D017452 NK cells and granulocytes. A low-affinity Fc receptor for IgG.[6]
CD19 D018941 Pre-B cells and mature B-cells but not plasma cells. They are involved in the regulation of B-cell proliferation.[7]
CD20 D018951 Pre-B cells after CD19 and mature B-cells but not plasma cells Plays a crucial role in transmembrane calcium ion (Ca2+) conduction and in B-cell activation and proliferation.[8]
CD21 D017464 Mature B-cells and follicular dendritic cells. EBV receptor; involved in complement signalling and in B-cell activation.
CD23 D017455 Activated mature B-cells Fc receptor for IgE.
CD28 D018106 Co-stimulatory T-cell receptor, promotes T-cell proliferation, cytokine production (especially interleukin-2), T-cell survival, B-cell immunoglobulin class switching to IgG, etc.[9]
CD30 D017730 Activated B-cells, T-cells and macrophages. Also found on Reed-Sternberg cells (RSCs) and variants. Found on various different lymphoid malignant cells besides RSCs, including anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells and germ cell tumour cells.[10] TNF receptor; T-cell activation upregulates it, it promotes T-cell receptor-dependent proliferation of T-cells; requires CD28 and IL-4R signalling in order for it to be upregulated in its expression.[10] Brentuximab vedotin is a monoclonal antibody-drug conjugate targeted towards this antigen. 
CD33 C571163 Myeloid progenitors and monocytes. Receptor that is highly expressed on AML cells, where it seems to regulate apoptosis (activation leads to apoptosis in vitro); may serve as an adhesion molecule for healthy cells.
CD34 D018952 Pluripotent haematopoietic stem cells, endothelial cells and progenitor cells of many lineages. Glycoproteins; unknown role.
CD45 D017493 All WBCs and their haematopoietic progenitors; also known as the leukocyte common antigen. Serves as a receptor that signals via tyrosine phosphatase.[11]
CD52 C069350 Mature lymphocytes (B-cells and T-cells), sperm and testicular elements and some neutrophils.[12] Unknown; humanized monoclonal antibody (alemtuzumab) targeted against this antigen are used to treat slow-growing lymphoid malignancies (e.g., chronic lymphocytic leukaemia) and select autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis.[12]
CD56 D019002 NK cells and a subset of T-cells. Unknown.
CD64 D017452 Mature myeloid cells Low affinity Fc receptor for immunoglobulin G.
CD79 D051925 B cells and pre-B cells Unknown; used as a marker for B-cell malignancies.

External linksEdit

NotesEdit

  1. References, if from MeSH, Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease or UniProt are often not cited in-text as they are used so frequently

Reference listEdit

  1. Pinto, M; Carmo, AM (June 2013). "CD6 as a therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases: successes and challenges.". BioDrugs 27 (3): 191–202. PMID 23568178. doi:10.1007/s40259-013-0027-4. 
  2. De Jager, PL; Jia, X; Wang, J; de Bakker, PI; Ottoboni, L; Aggarwal, NT; Piccio, L; Raychaudhuri, S; Tran, D; Aubin, C; Briskin, R; Romano, S; Baranzini, SE; McCauley, JL; Pericak-Vance, MA; Haines, JL; Gibson, RA; Naeglin, Y; Uitdehaag, B; Matthews, PM (July 2009). "Meta-analysis of genome scans and replication identify CD6, IRF8 and TNFRSF1A as new multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci.". Nature Genetics 41 (7): 776–82. PMC 2757648. PMID 19525953. doi:10.1038/ng.401. 
  3. Kofler, DM; Severson, CA; Mousissian, N; De Jager, PL; Hafler, DA (15 September 2011). "The CD6 multiple sclerosis susceptibility allele is associated with alterations in CD4+ T cell proliferation.". Journal of Immunology 187 (6): 3286–91. PMID 21849685. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1100626. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Kilbourne, J; Case, JT; Cho, DS; Hui, C; Jarnot, M; Koroma, B; Pash, J; Powell, T; Schulman, JL; Sorden, N (2015). "Antigens, CD14". Medical Subject Headings. Bethesda, USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  5. "Antigens, CD15". D016256. 
  6. Kilbourne, J; Case, JT; Cho, DS; Hui, C; Jarnot, M; Koroma, B; Pash, J; Powell, T; Schulman, JL; Sorden, N (2015). "Receptors, Immunoglobulin G". Medical Subject Headings. Bethesda, USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  7. Kilbourne, J; Case, JT; Cho, DS; Hui, C; Jarnot, M; Koroma, B; Pash, J; Powell, T; Schulman, JL; Sorden, N (2015). "Antigens, CD19". Medical Subject Headings. Bethesda, USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  8. Kilbourne, J; Case, JT; Cho, DS; Hui, C; Jarnot, M; Koroma, B; Pash, J; Powell, T; Schulman, JL; Sorden, N (2015). "Antigens, CD20". Medical Subject Headings. Bethesda, USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  9. "T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28". UniProt. Switzerland, UK, USA: UniProt Consortium. 26 November 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Muta, H; Podack, ER (December 2013). "CD30: from basic research to cancer therapy.". Immunologic Research 57 (1-3): 151–8. PMC 3992519. PMID 24233555. doi:10.1007/s12026-013-8464-1. 
  11. Kilbourne, J; Case, JT; Cho, DS; Hui, C; Jarnot, M; Koroma, B; Pash, J; Powell, T; Schulman, JL; Sorden, N (2015). "Antigens, CD45". Medical Subject Headings. Bethesda, USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Brunton, LL; Chabner, BA; Knollmann, BC, ed. (2010). "Chapter 62. Targeted Therapies: Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors, Monoclonal Antibodies, and Cytokines". Goodman & Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (12th ed.). New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-162442-8. 

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