Clusters of differentiation (CDs) are receptors (that can also serve as cell antigens) expressed on the surface of various immune cells.
|CD||MeSH ID||Expressing cells||Role|
|CD1||D018949||T-cells, B-cells and Langerhans cells||Presents antigens to the TCR.|
|CD2||D018801||T-cells, NK-cells and thymocytes.||Co-receptor to the T-cell receptor. Structurally related to immunoglobulin.|
|CD3||D017252||Mature T-cells||Has five subunits; all are involved in the signalling of the T-cell receptor.|
|CD4||D015704||Helper T-cells||Involved in MHC II immune responses; interleukin-15 and HIV receptors.|
|CD5||D018956||Mature T-cells, thymocytes and some B-cells||Targeted antibodies for CD5 can enhance T cell activation via the T cell receptor.|
|CD6||None||Mature T-cells and medullary thymocytes predominantly.||Important for the continuation of T cell activation. Defects in the CD6 gene have been associated with multiple sclerosis. Serves as a receptor for activated leukocyte-adhesion molecules.|
|CD7||D019011||Thymocytes, haematopoietic stem cells and certain T-cells.||Involved in T-cell signalling; otherwise unknown.|
|CD8||D016827||Thymocytes; cytotoxic T-cells; also on some NK-cells.||Co-receptor to the T-cell receptor. Structurally related to immunoglobulins.|
|CD9||D060245||Neurons, leukocytes, gonadal tissue.||A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility and tumour metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue and the fusion of sperm with egg.|
|CD10||D015260||Pre-B cells and germinal-centre B cells||Neprilysin; an enzyme that breaks down opioid peptides, insulin, etc.|
|CD11||D018845||Granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. Expressed by HCL.||A group of three different alpha chains that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain; they serve as leukocyte adhesion molecules.|
|CD14||D018950||Monocytes, macrophages and some granulocytes.||Serves as a receptor for the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-LPS-binding protein complex.|
|CD15||D016256||Granulocytes, Reed-Sternberg cells and variants.||Trisaccharide that is expressed on eosinophils, neutrophils and monocytes.|
|CD16||D017452||NK cells and granulocytes.||A low-affinity Fc receptor for IgG.|
|CD19||D018941||Pre-B cells and mature B-cells but not plasma cells.||They are involved in the regulation of B-cell proliferation.|
|CD20||D018951||Pre-B cells after CD19 and mature B-cells but not plasma cells||Plays a crucial role in transmembrane calcium ion (Ca2+) conduction and in B-cell activation and proliferation.|
|CD21||D017464||Mature B-cells and follicular dendritic cells.||EBV receptor; involved in complement signalling and in B-cell activation.|
|CD23||D017455||Activated mature B-cells||Fc receptor for IgE.|
|CD28||D018106||Co-stimulatory T-cell receptor, promotes T-cell proliferation, cytokine production (especially interleukin-2), T-cell survival, B-cell immunoglobulin class switching to IgG, etc.|
|CD30||D017730||Activated B-cells, T-cells and macrophages. Also found on Reed-Sternberg cells (RSCs) and variants. Found on various different lymphoid malignant cells besides RSCs, including anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells and germ cell tumour cells.||TNF receptor; T-cell activation upregulates it, it promotes T-cell receptor-dependent proliferation of T-cells; requires CD28 and IL-4R signalling in order for it to be upregulated in its expression. Brentuximab vedotin is a monoclonal antibody-drug conjugate targeted towards this antigen.|
|CD33||C571163||Myeloid progenitors and monocytes.||Receptor that is highly expressed on AML cells, where it seems to regulate apoptosis (activation leads to apoptosis in vitro); may serve as an adhesion molecule for healthy cells.|
|CD34||D018952||Pluripotent haematopoietic stem cells, endothelial cells and progenitor cells of many lineages.||Glycoproteins; unknown role.|
|CD45||D017493||All WBCs and their haematopoietic progenitors; also known as the leukocyte common antigen.||Serves as a receptor that signals via tyrosine phosphatase.|
|CD52||C069350||Mature lymphocytes (B-cells and T-cells), sperm and testicular elements and some neutrophils.||Unknown; humanized monoclonal antibody (alemtuzumab) targeted against this antigen are used to treat slow-growing lymphoid malignancies (e.g., chronic lymphocytic leukaemia) and select autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis.|
|CD56||D019002||NK cells and a subset of T-cells.||Unknown.|
|CD64||D017452||Mature myeloid cells||Low affinity Fc receptor for immunoglobulin G.|
|CD79||D051925||B cells and pre-B cells||Unknown; used as a marker for B-cell malignancies.|
- NCBI Bookshelf provides free book resources on this topic.
- PubMed provides review articles from the past five years (limit to free review articles or to systematic reviews)
- The TRIP database provides clinical publications about evidence-based medicine.
- ↑ References, if from MeSH, Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease or UniProt are often not cited in-text as they are used so frequently
- ↑ Pinto, M; Carmo, AM (June 2013). "CD6 as a therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases: successes and challenges.". BioDrugs 27 (3): 191–202. PMID 23568178. doi:10.1007/s40259-013-0027-4.
- ↑ De Jager, PL; Jia, X; Wang, J; de Bakker, PI; Ottoboni, L; Aggarwal, NT; Piccio, L; Raychaudhuri, S; Tran, D; Aubin, C; Briskin, R; Romano, S; Baranzini, SE; McCauley, JL; Pericak-Vance, MA; Haines, JL; Gibson, RA; Naeglin, Y; Uitdehaag, B; Matthews, PM (July 2009). "Meta-analysis of genome scans and replication identify CD6, IRF8 and TNFRSF1A as new multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci.". Nature Genetics 41 (7): 776–82. PMC 2757648. PMID 19525953. doi:10.1038/ng.401.
- ↑ Kofler, DM; Severson, CA; Mousissian, N; De Jager, PL; Hafler, DA (15 September 2011). "The CD6 multiple sclerosis susceptibility allele is associated with alterations in CD4+ T cell proliferation.". Journal of Immunology 187 (6): 3286–91. PMID 21849685. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1100626.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Kilbourne, J; Case, JT; Cho, DS; Hui, C; Jarnot, M; Koroma, B; Pash, J; Powell, T; Schulman, JL; Sorden, N (2015). "Antigens, CD14". Medical Subject Headings. Bethesda, USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- ↑ "Antigens, CD15". D016256.
- ↑ Kilbourne, J; Case, JT; Cho, DS; Hui, C; Jarnot, M; Koroma, B; Pash, J; Powell, T; Schulman, JL; Sorden, N (2015). "Receptors, Immunoglobulin G". Medical Subject Headings. Bethesda, USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- ↑ Kilbourne, J; Case, JT; Cho, DS; Hui, C; Jarnot, M; Koroma, B; Pash, J; Powell, T; Schulman, JL; Sorden, N (2015). "Antigens, CD19". Medical Subject Headings. Bethesda, USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- ↑ Kilbourne, J; Case, JT; Cho, DS; Hui, C; Jarnot, M; Koroma, B; Pash, J; Powell, T; Schulman, JL; Sorden, N (2015). "Antigens, CD20". Medical Subject Headings. Bethesda, USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- ↑ "T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28". UniProt. Switzerland, UK, USA: UniProt Consortium. 26 November 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Muta, H; Podack, ER (December 2013). "CD30: from basic research to cancer therapy.". Immunologic Research 57 (1-3): 151–8. PMC 3992519. PMID 24233555. doi:10.1007/s12026-013-8464-1.
- ↑ Kilbourne, J; Case, JT; Cho, DS; Hui, C; Jarnot, M; Koroma, B; Pash, J; Powell, T; Schulman, JL; Sorden, N (2015). "Antigens, CD45". Medical Subject Headings. Bethesda, USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Brunton, LL; Chabner, BA; Knollmann, BC, ed. (2010). "Chapter 62. Targeted Therapies: Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors, Monoclonal Antibodies, and Cytokines". Goodman & Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (12th ed.). New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-162442-8.