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Clonidine
Clonidine
Synonyms ST-155, ST-155-BS
Brand names Catapres, Dixarit, Duraclon, Jenloga, Kapvay
IUPAC name

IUPAC name
N-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-amine
ChemSpider

2701

DrugBank

DB00575

PubChem

2803

PDB fields

N/A

Formula

C9H9Cl2N3

InChI
InChI
1S/C9H9Cl2N3/c10-6-2-1-3-7(11)8(6)14-9-12-4-5-13-9/h1-3H,4-5H2,(H2,12,13,14)
InChIKey
InChIKey
GJSURZIOUXUGAL-UHFFFAOYSA-N
SMILES
SMILES
C1CN=C(N1)NC2=C(C=CC=C2Cl)Cl
(Jmol 3D structure)
Mol. mass

230.0939 g/mol

Clonidine is an α2 adrenoceptor partial agonist and imidazoline receptor agonist.[1] Usually reserved for use in resistant cases of drug dependence, ADHD, chronic pain and hypertension, due to its dose-limiting side effects of sedation and low blood pressure. Other side effects include: dry mouth, headache, fatigue, dizziness, anxiety, constipation, sedation, nausea/vomiting, generally feeling unwell, dizziness upon standing up, due to a drop in blood pressure, loss of appetite, abnormal liver function tests, rash and weight gain. It is used for a wide range of things, including: hypertension, pain,[2] anaesthesia for surgery, restless legs syndrome, alcohol withdrawal (the “DTs”, see alcohol), menopausal flushes,[3] shivering from surgery, Tourette’s syndrome,[4] migraine, diarrhoea, smoking cessation,[5] opioid withdrawal,[6] to treat/prevent growth stunting and, finally, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).[7] It can be given orally, by injection or as a patch (although this formulation is not available in Australia).

External linksEdit

Reference listEdit

  1. Brunton, LL; Chabner, BA; Knollmann, BC, ed. (2010). Goodman & Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (12th ed.). New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-162442-8. 
  2. Lambert, P; Cyna, AM; Knight, N; Middleton, P (January 2014). "Clonidine premedication for postoperative analgesia in children.". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1: CD009633. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009633.pub2. PMID 24470114.
  3. Rada, G; Capurro, D; Pantoja, T; Corbalán, J; Moreno, G; Letelier, LM; Vera, C (September 2010). "Non-hormonal interventions for hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer.". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (9): CD004923. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004923.pub2. PMID 20824841.
  4. Pringsheim, T; Steeves, T (April 2011). "Pharmacological treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with comorbid tic disorders.". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD007990. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007990.pub2. PMID 21491404.
  5. Cahill, K; Stevens, S; Perera, R; Lancaster, T (May 2013). "Pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation: an overview and network meta-analysis.". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 5: CD009329. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009329.pub2. PMID 23728690.
  6. Gowing, L; Farrell, MF; Ali, R; White, JM (March 2014). "Alpha2-adrenergic agonists for the management of opioid withdrawal.". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3: CD002024. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002024.pub4. PMID 24683051.
  7. Croxtall, JD (October 2011). "Clonidine extended-release: in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.". Paediatric Drugs 13 (5): 329–36. doi:10.2165/11208100-000000000-00000. PMID 21888447.

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