|Chronic myeloid leukaemia|
Blood smear showing a hypolobated megakaryocyte (centre)
Chronic myeloid leukaemia is a chronic form of leukaemia that arises from cells of myeloid lineage in the bone marrow. It is classed under myeloproliferative disorders, along with essential thrombocythaemia, myelofibrosis, polycythaemia vera, etc. CML cells nearly always show the cytogenic finding of the Philadelphia chromosome, which causes the formation of the fusion gene BCR-ABL1. While incurable with drugs alone (but curable when a haematopoietic stem cell transplant is possible) many individuals with the disease can now live a normal lifespan with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) like imatinib. Sometimes, however, TKI resistance develops in CML, in these individuals the disease can be fatal, recently however the protein synthesis inhibitor omacetaxine mepesuccinate was FDA approved to treat TKI-resistant CML.
Signs and symptomsEdit
CML comes in three major clinical phases: chronic, accelerated and blast. The signs and symptoms of CML varies significantly from person-to-person and from stage-to-stage. In the chronic phase the symptoms often include:
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- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Apperley, JF (4 December 2014). "Chronic myeloid leukaemia". Lancet. PMID 25484026. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62120-0.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Besa, EC (22 August 2014). Krishnan, K; Buehler, B; Markman, M; Sacher, RA; Sarkodee-Adoo, C; Talavera, F; Windle, ML, ed. "Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia". Medscape Reference. New York, USA: WebMD. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
- ↑ Pemmaraju, N; Cortes, J (2014). "Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Adolescents and Young Adults: Patient Characteristics, Outcomes and Review of the Literature". Acta Haematologica 132 (3-4): 298–306. ISSN 1421-9662. PMID 25228555. doi:10.1159/000363434.
- ↑ Ai, J; Tiu, RV (2014). "Practical management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who develop tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant BCR-ABL1 mutations". Therapeutic Advances in Hematology 5 (4): 107–120. ISSN 2040-6207. PMID 25360237. doi:10.1177/2040620714537865.
- ↑ Li, S; Chen, Y (31 January 2014). "Omacetaxine mepesuccinate in the treatment of intractable chronic myeloid leukemia". OncoTargets and Therapy 7: 177–186. ISSN 1178-6930. PMC 3916637. PMID 24516334. doi:10.2147/OTT.S41786.