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Biguanides generalized structure

The generalized structure of biguanides

The biguanides are a class of drugs that share a common component of their chemical structure. They are used as anti-infective (mostly as antimalarials and antiseptics) and antidiabetic agents.



Antidiabetic biguanidesEdit

Galega officinalis

Galega officinalis

Antidiabetic biguanides (ADBs) include buformin, metformin and phenformin, all three of which work by reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis, amongst other actions, including sensitizing cells to the effects of insulin via increasing insulin receptor expression and increases the ability of the insulin receptor to communicate with the inner components of the cell.[1] They are all useful only in the second subtype of diabetes mellitus (type II diabetes mellitus [T2DM]), as in type I diabetes mellitus very little residual insulin production is left.

Their historical origins of the ADBs can be traced back to the use of the European herb, Galega officinalis in the control of polyuria, which is often due to type II diabetes mellitus.

Compared to other antidiabetics (ADs) ABDs do not cause hypoglycaemia, although they can cause lactic acidosis, which is the reason why buformin and phenformin have been removed from the market.

Reference listEdit

  1. Viollet, B; Guigas, B; Sanz Garcia, N; Leclerc, J; Foretz, M; Andreelli, F (March 2012). "Cellular and molecular mechanisms of metformin: an overview.". Clinical Science 122 (6): 253–70. PMC 3398862. PMID 22117616. doi:10.1042/CS20110386. 

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