The α1 receptor mediates the vasoconstrictory effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline, along with some of its effects on mental alertness.:176 α1 antagonists produce sexual dysfunction, sedation and orthostatic hypotension.:176 α2 receptors are inhibitory auto- and hetero- receptors.:176 α2 antagonists produce antidepressant, hypertensive and other stimulant effects.:176 α2 agonists produces analgesic, sedative, depressogenic, reduced blood pressure (especially upon standing up) and increases the activity of the prefrontal cortex, hence reducing impulsivity and hyperactivity and improving attention.:176
β1 receptors regulate blood pressure, heart rate, renin release, lipolysis and saliva secretion.:176 β2 receptors regulate blood vessel diameter (agonists cause dilation), airway diameter (dilated with agonists), gastrointestinal tract (relaxed via agonism), uterus (relaxation with agonists), bladder detrusor (relaxation with agonists), seminal tract (which is required for semen ejaculation in males; relaxed by agonists), ciliary muscle (relaxed by agonists), slight effects on heart rate and blood pressure (increases with agonists, usually only noticeable in heart failure), tremor, glycogenolysis (decreases with agonists), adrenaline release (increased by agonists) and histamine release (inhibited by agonists).:176 β3 receptors modulate heat production by voluntary muscle tissue and fat tissue (agonists increase it) and lipolysis.:176
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Rang, HP; Dale, MM; Ritter, JM; Flower, RJ; Henderson, G (2012). "Noradrenergic transmission". Rang and Dale's Pharmacology. (7th ed. ed.). London, UK: Elsevier. ISBN 978-1-4377-1933-8.
- ↑ Brayfield, A, ed. (26 June 2014). "Beta Blockers". Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 15 September 2014.